At the beginning of the seventeenth century it was still the case that most industry was still undertaken on a domestic basis. However, that was beginning to change, especially because of the growing importance of coal-mining which gained importance because of the increasing scarcity of timber. That only could work as a capitalist enterprise and, similarly, iron-mining and foreign trade were coming to the fore. Other expanding industries included the manufacture of salt and ship-building, but agriculture, including farming, was still the most common occupation for Englishmen.
Socially, class distinctions played a significant role with four main divisions – the peers or the nobility; the gentry, who were the land-owning class; the yeoman, who were the professional and merchant classes; and the common people, this last including perhaps three quarters of the population.
Politically, the century opened with the accession to the throne of James VI of Scotland in 1603. As he became James I of England, many looked for changes and Parliament quickly took for itself more powers, specifically over taxation, commercial policy and foreign policy.
James I’s son, Charles I, succeeded him in 1625. His reign was a time of war and plague and, for eleven years, Parliament did not meet. This period of personal government by Charles ended with the calling, on the advice of the Earl of Strafford, of the Parliament, in order that Charles might establish support from the English against the Scots. However, the “Short Parliament” broke up in anger and disarray after less than three weeks. The Civil War that followed led eventually to the execution of Charles and the establishment of Oliver Cromwell’s “Commonwealth” in 1649.
In 1660 the Stuarts were restored to the throne in the person of Charles II. However, this restoration of the monarchy did not undo all the curbs on its power that had been put in place by Charles I before he left his capital, and so the reigns, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, of Charles II (1660-1674), James II (1685-1689) and William and Mary (1689-1702) were subject to significant parliamentary influence.
It was also a time of religious ferment. Presbyterians and Independents, sometimes known as Congregationalists, were establishing new ways of church that did not conform to the Church of England. Quakers and Roman Catholics were also part of this dissenting picture. And there were many others. The Puritans sought to purify and reform the church, in particular by abolishing certain ceremonies thought to be remnants from Roman Catholicism, such as the use of the cross at baptism and kneeling at communion. Many also questioned whether there was any Biblical authority for bishops, preferring the Reformed pattern of church government by elders and synods. There were many smaller groups, including the Brownists, the Diggers, the Fifth Monarchists and even the Muggletonians – nothing to do with Harry Potter!
On 19th May 1662 Parliament passed the Act of Uniformity, demanding that all clergy accept the Prayer Book and submit to royal authority. The deadline for conforming was St Bartholomew’s Day, 24th August 1662 – but when the time arrived 2029 clergy, lecturers and fellows gave up their jobs, many with the utmost reluctance as it was their livelihood, but conscience would not let them do otherwise.
Perhaps that is the question for all of us as we think of the impact of those things that happened 350 years ago. Within the Reformed tradition we think of the impact of non-conformity and dissent and all that has contributed to the life of our nation and of the world down the years. At the same time, the Anglican tradition celebrates the 350th anniversary of the Book of Common Prayer – and all that represents in terms of prayer and spirituality. 350 years ago we went our separate ways. Today I hope we know that not only can we learn from each other, but we need to.
Let me suggest three things we can take from all this.
The first is the importance of considering what are the things from which we should dissent. What are the things we should disagree with? Now, in a sense, that doesn’t seem a good line for a preacher. Why should I be encouraging you to disagree with stuff? Well, simply because there are lots of things that we ought to disagree with. Christian Aid tells us clearly that we should disagree with poverty. That is a stance which I wholeheartedly support. I disagree with bullying. I disagree with greed. I disagree with folk covering up the truth, and we find that happening in all sorts of ways. I disagree with cheating. If you were going to make a list of the things that you disagree with, I wonder what you would put on that list. Think about it – a list of, say, ten things to disagree with.
Jesus disagreed with people who made a big show of saying their prayers but were not actually concerned with really praying to God. He told a story about that once. Two people went to their place of worship to talk to God. One was very religious, and the other was an outcast from society. The first stood confidently out at the front. (He thought he was talking to God, but really he was talking to himself.) This is what he said: ‘God, I thank you I’m not like other people. I don’t steal or tell lies. .. I’m not a traitor to my country like that tax collector back there. I keep to a strict diet, and I give generously to charity.’ The second stood at the back, his head in his hands, groaning pitifully. All he said was, ‘God, help me. I’m no good.’ And Jesus commented: I’m telling you it was the second person that went home on good terms with God rather than the first. Those who put themselves on pedestals fall off them sooner or later, but those who grieve over their faults are honoured by God. So, think about what you should disagree with.
And then, the second thing, which also links to that story, though in a very different way is to make sure that we do link up with God, and the way that we do that is by prayer. There are so many ways in which we can talk about prayer. Calvin, the great reformer, describes prayer as participation in God’s generosity. I like the description of prayer offered by a Roman Catholic writer, Thomas Green, who says – “The art of praying, as we grow, is really the art of learning to waste time gracefully – to be simply the clay in the hands of the potter.” And one of my real favourites is the description offered by Richard Foster - “God receives us just as we are and accepts our prayers just as they are. In the same way that a small child cannot draw a bad picture so a child of God cannot offer a bad prayer.” May the marking of the anniversary of the Book of Common Prayer remind us of the importance of prayer in all its forms.
And thirdly, finally, how might we sum everything up. Let’s just say that, like the Christians of the very early church, and like the Christians of 350 years ago, we are called to be God’s people here and now. How can we explain that? Well, Jesus explained it by comparing us to salt and light. You are like a rich flavouring for adding to the world. So don’t be like the packet that goes past its sell-by date and has to be thrown out. … You are like a lighthouse built to make travel safer in a dark world. Just like the big city whose lights can be seen miles away because it is on high ground, you must be in the right position for your light to be directed to best effect. Or another word picture that Jesus uses is of the leaven or the yeast. The yeast works its way all through the dough. We need to get in the middle of the world with that yeasty influence that changes everything.